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A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation. Machine tools employ some sort of tool that does the cutting or shaping. All machine tools have some means of constraining the workpiece and provide a guided movement of the parts of the machine. Thus the relative movement between the workpiece and the cutting tool (which is called the toolpath) is controlled or constrained by the machine to at least some extent, rather than being entirely "offhand" or "freehand". 

A tipped tool generally refers to any cutting tool where the cutting edge consists of a separate piece of material, either brazed, welded or clamped on to a separate body. Common materials for tips include tungsten carbide, polycrystalline diamond, and cubic boron nitride.[1] Tools that are commonly tipped include: milling cutters (endmills, fly cutters), tool bits, and saw blades.

Advantages and disadvantages
The advantage of tipped tools is only a small insert of the cutting material is needed to provide the cutting ability. The small size makes manufacturing of the insert easier than making a solid tool of the same material. This also reduces cost because the tool holder can be made of a less-expensive and tougher material. In some situations a tipped tool is better than its solid counterpart because it combines the toughness of the tool holder with the hardness of the insert.  In other situations this is less than optimal, because the joint between the tool holder and the insert reduces rigidity.[1] However, these tools may still be used because the overall cost savings is still greater.

Indexable inserts
Inserts are removable cutting tips, which means they are not brazed or welded to the tool body. They are usually indexable, meaning that they can be rotated or flipped without disturbing the overall geometry of the tool (effective diameter, tool length offset, etc.). This saves time in manufacturing by allowing fresh cutting edges to be presented periodically without the need for tool grinding, setup changes, or entering of new values into a CNC program.

Wiper insert
A wiper insert is an insert used in a milling machine or a lathe. It is designed for finish cutting, to give a smooth surface on the surface being cut. It uses special geometry to give a good finish on the workpiece at a higher-than-normal feedrate. Wiper inserts generally have a larger area in contact with the workpiece, so they exert higher force on the workpiece. This makes them unsuitable for fragile workpieces.

 Cutting Tool is any tool that is used to remove material from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. Cutting may be accomplished by single-point or multipoint tools. Single-point tools are used in turning, shaping, plaining and similar operations, and remove material by means of one cutting edge. Milling and drilling tools are often multipoint tools. Grinding tools are also multipoint tools. Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge (although of high negative rake angle), and shears a tiny chip.

Cutting tools must be made of a material harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface. The angle of the cutting face is also important, as is the flute width, number of flutes or teeth, and margin size. In order to have a long working life, all of the above must be optimized, plus the speeds and feeds at which the tool is run.

Linear cutting tools include tool bits (single-point cutting tools) and broaches. Rotary cutting tools include drill bits, countersinks and counterbores, taps and dies, milling cutters, reamers, and cold saw blades. Other cutting tools, such as bandsaw blades, hacksaw blades, and fly cutters, combine aspects of linear and rotary motion

Cutting tools with inserts (indexable tools)
Cutting tools are often designed with inserts or replaceable tips (tipped tools). In these, the cutting edge consists of a separate piece of material, either brazed, welded or clamped on to the tool body. Common materials for tips include cemented carbide, polycrystalline diamond, and cubic boron nitride. Tools using inserts include milling cutters (endmills, fly cutters), tool bits, and saw blades.

Solid cutting tools
The typical tool for milling and drilling has no changeable insert. The cutting edge and the shank is one unit and built of the same material. Small tools cannot be designed with exchangeable inserts.

To use a cutting tool within a CNC machine there is a basic holder required to mount it on the machines spindle or turret. For CNC milling machines, there are two (2) types of holder. There are shank taper (SK) and hollow shank taper (HSK).

Tool setup
The detailed instruction how to combine the tool assembly out of basic holder, tool and insert can be stored in a tool management solution.

To produce quality product, a cutting tool must have three characteristics:

Hardness: hardness and strength at high temperatures.
Toughness: so that tools do not chip or fracture.
Wear resistance: having acceptable tool life before needing to be replaced.
Cutting tool materials can be divided into two main categories: stable and unstable.

Unstable materials (usually steels) are substances that start at a relatively low hardness point and are then heat treated to promote the growth of hard particles (usually carbides) inside the original matrix, which increases the overall hardness of the material at the expense of some its original toughness. Since heat is the mechanism to alter the structure of the substance and at the same time the cutting action produces a lot of heat, such substances are inherently unstable under machining conditions.

Stable materials (usually tungsten carbide) are substances that remain relatively stable under the heat produced by most machining conditions, as they don't attain their hardness through heat. They wear down due to abrasion, but generally don't change their properties much during use.

Most stable materials are hard enough to break before flexing, which makes them very fragile. To avoid chipping at the cutting edge, some tools made of such materials are finished with a sightly blunt edge, which results in higher cutting forces due to an increased shear area, however, tungsten carbide has the ability to attain a significantly sharper cutting edge than tooling steel for uses such as ultrasonic machining of composites. Fragility combined with high cutting forces results in most stable materials being unsuitable for use in anything but large, heavy and rigid machinery and fixtures.

Unstable materials, being generally softer and thus tougher, generally can stand a bit of flexing without breaking, which makes them much more suitable for unfavorable machining conditions, such as those encountered in hand tools and light machinery.

 Tool Material

Tool materialProperties
Carbontool steelsUnstable. Very inexpensive. Extremely sensitive to heat. Mostly obsolete in today's commercial machining, although it is still commonly found in non-intensive applications such as hobbyist orMRO machining, where economy-grade drill bits, taps and dies, hacksaw blades, and reamers are still usually made of it (because of its affordability). Hardness up to about HRC 65. Sharp cutting edges possible.
High speed steel(HSS)Unstable. Inexpensive. Retains hardness at moderate temperatures. The most common cutting tool material used today. Used extensively on drill bits and taps. Hardness up to about HRC 67. Sharp cutting edges possible.
HSS cobaltUnstable. Moderately expensive. The high cobalt versions of high speed steel are very resistant to heat and thus excellent for machining abrasive and/or work hardening materials such as titanium and stainless steel. Used extensively on milling cutters and drill bits. Hardness up to about HRC 70. Sharp cutting edges possible.
Castcobalt alloysStable. Expensive. Somewhat fragile. Despite its stability it doesn't allow for high machining speed due to low hardness. Not used much. Hardness up to about HRC 65. Sharp cutting edges possible.
Cemented carbideStable. Moderately expensive. The most common material used in the industry today. It is offered in several "grades" containing different proportions of tungsten carbide and binder (usually cobalt). High resistance to abrasion. High solubility in iron requires the additions of tantalum carbide andniobium carbide for steel usage. Its main use is in turning tool bits although it is very common in milling cutters and saw blades. Hardness up to about HRC 90. Sharp edges generally not recommended.
CeramicsStable. Moderately inexpensive. Chemically inert and extremely resistant to heat, ceramics are usually desirable in high speed applications, the only drawback being their high fragility. Ceramics are considered unpredictable under unfavorable conditions. The most common ceramic materials are based on alumina (aluminium oxide), silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Used almost exclusively on turning tool bits. Hardness up to about HRC 93. Sharp cutting edges and positive rake angles are to be avoided.
CermetsStable. Moderately expensive. Another cemented material based on titanium carbide (TiC). Binder is usually nickel. It provides higher abrasion resistance compared to tungsten carbide at the expense of some toughness. It is far more chemically inert than it too. Extremely high resistance to abrasion. Used primarily on turning tool bits although research is being carried on producing other cutting tools. Hardness up to about HRC 93. Sharp edges generally not recommended.
Cubic boron nitride(CBN)Stable. Expensive. Being the second hardest substance known, it is also the second most fragile. It offers extremely high resistance to abrasion at the expense of much toughness. It is generally used in a machining process called "hard machining", which involves running the tool or the part fast enough to melt it before it touches the edge, softening it considerably. Used almost exclusively on turning tool bits. Hardness higher than HRC 95. Sharp edges generally not recommended.
DiamondStable. Very Expensive. The hardest substance known to date. Superior resistance to abrasion but also high chemical affinity to iron which results in being unsuitable for steel machining. It is used where abrasive materials would wear anything else. Extremely fragile. Used almost exclusively on turning tool bits although it can be used as a coating on many kinds of tools. Sharp edges generally not recommended.


is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotary tool bit, describes a helical toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates. The tool's axes of movement may be literally a straight line, or they may be along some set of curves or angles, but they are essentially linear (in the nonmathematical sense). Usually the term "turning" is reserved for the generation of external surfaces by this cutting action, whereas this same essential cutting action when applied to internal surfaces (that is, holes, of one kind or another) is called "boring". Thus the phrase "turning and boring" categorizes the larger family of (essentially similar) processes. The cutting of faces on the workpiece (that is, surfaces perpendicular to its rotating axis), whether with a turning or boring tool, is called "facing", and may be lumped into either category as a subset.
Turning can be done manually, in a traditional form of lathe, which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using an automated lathe which does not. Today the most common type of such automation is computer numerical control, better known as CNC. (CNC is also commonly used with many other types of machining besides turning.)
When turning, a piece of relatively rigid material (such as wood, metal, plastic, or stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 1, 2, or 3 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries. Although now quite rare, early lathes could even be used to produce complex geometric figures, even the platonic solids; although since the advent of CNC it has become unusual to use non-computerized toolpath control for this purpose
The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe, considered to be the oldest machine tools, and can be of four different types such as straight turning, taper turning, profiling or external grooving. Those types of turning processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight, conical, curved, or grooved workpiece. In general, turning uses simple single-point cutting tools. Each group of workpiece materials has an optimum set of tools angles which have been developed through the years.
The bits of waste metal from turning operations are known as chips (North America), or swarf (Britain). In some areas they may be known as turnings.

Turing Operation:
This operation is one of the most basic machining processes. That is, the part is rotated while a single point cutting tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation. Turning can be done on the external surface of the part as well as internally (boring). The starting material is generally a workpiece generated by other processes such as casting, forging, extrusion, or drawing.  

Turning operation    Tapered turning    a) from the compound slide b) from taper turning attachment c) using a hydraulic copy attachment d) using a C.N.C. lathe e) using a form tool f) by the offsetting of the tailstock - this method more suited for shallow tapers.
Spherical generation The proper expression for making or turning a shape is to generate as in to generate a form around a fixed axis of revolution. a) using hydraulic copy attachment b) C.N.C. (computerised numerically controlled) lathe c) using a form tool (a rough and ready method) d) using bed jig (need drawing to explain).
Hard turning is a turning done on materials with a Rockwell C hardness greater than 45. It is typically performed after the workpiece is heat treated.The process is intended to replace or limit traditional grinding operations. Hard turning, when applied for purely stock removal purposes, competes favorably with rough grinding. However, when it is applied for finishing where form and dimension are critical, grinding is superior. Grinding produces higher dimensional accuracy of roundness and cylindricity. In addition, polished surface finishes of Rz=0.3-0.8z cannot be achieved with hard turning alone. Hard turning is appropriate for parts requiring roundness accuracy of 0.5-12 micrometres, and/or surface roughness of Rz 0.8–7.0 micrometres. It is used for gears, injection pump components, hydraulic components, among other applications.
Facing in the context of turning work involves moving the cutting tool at right angles to the axis of rotation of the rotating workpiece.[1] This can be performed by the operation of the cross-slide, if one is fitted, as distinct from the longitudinal feed (turning). It is frequently the first operation performed in the production of the workpiece, and often the last—hence the phrase "ending up".
Parting, This process, also called parting off or cutoff, is used to create deep grooves which will remove a completed or part-complete component from its parent stock.
Grooving is like parting, except that grooves are cut to a specific depth instead of severing a completed/part-complete component from the stock. Grooving can be performed on internal and external surfaces, as well as on the face of the part (face grooving or trepanning).

Non-specific operations include:
Boring  Enlarging or smoothing an existing hole created by drilling, moulding etc.i.e. the machining of internal cylindrical forms (generating) a) by mounting workpiece to the spindle via a chuck or faceplate b) by mounting workpiece onto the cross slide and placing cutting tool into the chuck. This work is suitable for castings that are too awkward to mount in the face plate. On long bed lathes large workpiece can be bolted to a fixture on the bed and a shaft passed between two lugs on the workpiece and these lugs can be bored out to size. A limited application but one that is available to the skilled turner/machinist.
Drilling  Drilling is used to remove material from the inside of a workpiece. This process utilizes standard drill bits held stationary in the tail stock or tool turret of the lathe. The process can be done by separately available drilling machines.
Knurling  The cutting of a serrated pattern onto the surface of a part to use as a hand grip using a special purpose knurling tool.
Reaming  The sizing operation that removes a small amount of metal from a hole already drilled.[2] It is done for making internal holes of very accurate diameters. For example, a 6mm hole is made by drilling with 5.98 mm drill bit and then reamed to accurate dimensions.
Both standard and non-standard screw threads can be turned on a lathe using an appropriate cutting tool. (Usually having a 60, or 55° nose angle) Either externally, or within a bore. Generally referred to as single-point threading. tapping of threaded nuts and holes a) using hand taps and tailstock centre b)using a tapping device with a slipping clutch to reduce risk of breakage of the tap. threading operations include a)all types of external and internal thread forms using a single point tool also taper threads, double start threads, multi start threads, worms as used in worm wheel reduction boxes, leadscrew with single or multistart threads. b) by the use of threading boxes fitted with 4 form tools, up to 2" diameter threads but it is possible to find larger boxes than this.
Polygonal turning  in which non-circular forms are machined without interrupting the rotation of the raw material.


Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece advancing (or feeding) in a direction at an angle with the axis of the tool.[2][3] It covers a wide variety of different operations and machines, on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy-duty gang milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used processes in industry and machine shops today for machining parts to precise sizes and shapes.
Milling process
Milling can be done with a wide range of machine tools. The original class of machine tools for milling was the milling machine (often called a mill). After the advent of computer numerical control (CNC), milling machines evolved into machining centers (milling machines with automatic tool changers, tool magazines or carousels, CNC control, coolant systems, and enclosures), generally classified as vertical machining centers (VMCs) and horizontal machining centers (HMCs). The integration of milling into turning environments and of turning into milling environments, begun with live tooling for lathes and the occasional use of mills for turning operations, led to a new class of machine tools, multitasking machines (MTMs), which are purpose-built to provide for a default machining strategy of using any combination of milling and turning within the same work envelope.
Milling is a cutting process that uses a milling cutter to remove material from the surface of a workpiece. The milling cutter is a rotary cutting tool, often with multiple cutting points. As opposed to drilling, where the tool is advanced along its rotation axis, the cutter in milling is usually moved perpendicular to its axis so that cutting occurs on the circumference of the cutter. As the milling cutter enters the workpiece, the cutting edges (flutes or teeth) of the tool repeatedly cut into and exit from the material, shaving off chips (swarf) from the workpiece with each pass. The cutting action is shear deformation; the metal is pushed off the workpiece in tiny clumps that hang together to more or less extent (depending on the metal type) to form chips. This makes metal cutting a bit different (in its mechanics) from slicing softer materials with a blade.
The milling process removes material by performing many separate, small cuts. This is accomplished by using a cutter with many teeth, spinning the cutter at high speed, or advancing the material through the cutter slowly; most often it is some combination of these three approaches. The speeds and feeds used are varied to suit a combination of variables. The speed at which the piece advances through the cutter is called feed rate, or just feed; it is most often measured in length of material per full revolution of the cutter.

There are two major classes of milling process:
In face milling, the cutting action occurs primarily at the end corners of the milling cutter. Face milling is used to cut flat surfaces (faces) into the workpiece, or to cut flat-bottomed cavities.
In peripheral milling, the cutting action occurs primarily along the circumference of the cutter, so that the cross section of the milled surface ends up receiving the shape of the cutter. In this case the blades of the cutter can be seen as scooping out material from the work piece. Peripheral milling is well suited to the cutting of deep slots, threads, and gear teeth.

Milling cutters
Many different types of cutting tools are used in the milling process. Milling cutters such as endmills may have cutting surfaces across their entire end surface, so that they can be drilled into the workpiece (plunging). Milling cutters may also have extended cutting surfaces on their sides to allow for peripheral milling. Tools optimized for face milling tend to have only small cutters at their end corners.
The cutting surfaces of a milling cutter are generally made of a hard and temperature-resistant material, so that they wear slowly. A low cost cutter may have surfaces made of high speed steel. More expensive but slower-wearing materials include cemented carbide. Thin film coatings may be applied to decrease friction or further increase hardness.
They are cutting tools typically used in milling machines or machining centres to perform milling operations (and occasionally in other machine tools). They remove material by their movement within the machine (e.g., a ball nose mill) or directly from the cutter's shape (e.g., a form tool such as a hobbing cutter).

Surface finish  As material passes through the cutting area of a milling machine, the blades of the cutter take swarfs of material at regular intervals. Surfaces cut by the side of the cutter (as in peripheral milling) therefore always contain regular ridges. The distance between ridges and the height of the ridges depend on the feed rate, number of cutting surfaces, the cutter diameter.[4] With a narrow cutter and rapid feed rate, these revolution ridges can be significant variations in the surface height.
The face milling process can in principle produce very flat surfaces. However, in practice the result always shows visible trochoidal marks following the motion of points on the cutter's end face. These revolution marks give the characteristic finish of a face milled surface. Revolution marks can have significant roughness depending on factors such as flatness of the cutter's end face and the degree of perpendicularity between the cutter's rotation axis and feed direction. Often a final pass with a slow feed rate is used to compensate for a poor milling setup, in order to reduce the roughness of revolution marks. In a precise face milling operation, the revolution marks will only be microscopic scratches due to imperfections in the cutting edge.

Gang milling refers to the use of two or more milling cutters mounted on the same arbor (that is, ganged) in a horizontal-milling setup. All of the cutters may perform the same type of operation, or each cutter may perform a different type of operation. For example, if several workpieces need a slot, a flat surface, and an angular groove, a good method to cut these (within a non-CNC context) would be gang milling. All the completed workpieces would be the same, and milling time per piece

Mill orientation:

Vertical mill  The vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bed mill and the turret mill.
A turret mill has a stationary spindle and the table is moved both perpendicular and parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. The most common example of this type is the Bridgeport, described below. Turret mills often have a quill which allows the milling cutter to be raised and lowered in a manner similar to a drill press. This type of machine provides two methods of cutting in the vertical (Z) direction: by raising or lowering the quill, and by moving the knee.
In the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis.

Turret mills are generally considered by some to be more versatile of the two designs. However, turret mills are only practical as long as the machine remains relatively small. As machine size increases, moving the knee up and down requires considerable effort and it also becomes difficult to reach the quill feed handle (if equipped). Therefore, larger milling machines are usually of the bed type.
A third type also exists, a lighter machine, called a mill-drill, which is a close relative of the vertical mill and quite popular with hobbyists. A mill-drill is similar in basic configuration to a small drill press, but equipped with an X-Y table. They also typically use more powerful motors than a comparably sized drill press, with potentiometer-controlled speed and generally have more heavy-duty spindle bearings than a drill press to deal with the lateral loading on the spindle that is created by a milling operation. A mill dril also typically raises and lowers the entire head, including motor, often on a dovetailed vertical, where a drill press motor remains stationary, while the arbor raises and lowers within a driving collar. Other differences that separate a mill-drill from a drill press may be a fine tuning adjustment for the Z-axis, a more precise depth stop, the capability to lock the X, Y or Z axis, and often a system of tilting the head or the entire vertical to allow angled cutting. Aside from size and precision, the principal difference between these hobby-type machines and larger true vertical mills is that the X-Y table is at a fixed elevation; the Z-axis is controlled in basically the same fashion as drill press, where a larger vertical or knee mill has a vertically fixed milling head, and changes the X-Y table elevation. As well, a mill-drill often uses a standard drill press-type Jacob's chuck, rather than an internally tapered arbor that accepts collets. These are frequently of lower quality than other types of machines, but still fill the hobby role well because they tend to be benchtop machines with small footprints and modest price tags.

Horizontal mill
A horizontal mill has the same sort of x–y table, but the cutters are mounted on a horizontal arbor (see Arbor milling) across the table. Many horizontal mills also feature a built-in rotary table that allows milling at various angles; this feature is called a universal table. While endmills and the other types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill, their real advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters, called side and face mills, which have a cross section rather like a circular saw, but are generally wider and smaller in diameter. Because the cutters have good support from the arbor and have a larger cross-sectional area than an end mill, quite heavy cuts can be taken enabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to mill grooves and slots. Plain mills are used to shape flat surfaces. Several cutters may be ganged together on the arbor to mill a complex shape of slots and planes. Special cutters can also cut grooves, bevels, radii, or indeed any section desired. These specialty cutters tend to be expensive. Simplex mills have one spindle, and duplex mills have two. It is also easier to cut gears on a horizontal mill. Some horizontal milling machines are equipped with a power-take-off provision on the table. This allows the table feed to be synchronized to a rotary fixture, enabling the milling of spiral features such as hypoid gears.

 from wikipedia